The great majority of studies exploring adverse effects of ENMs have been conducted in study settings mimicking effects in healthy individuals, but only part of the world’s population can be categorised into this group.

A significant part of the population has impaired cardiovascular (such as atherosclerosis or myocardial ischemia) or pulmonary (such as asthma or COPD) functions, health conditions that may make people more susceptible to health risks from particulate exposure.

Therefore, this work package is designed to identify the key characteristics of nanomaterials that control their fate and biological effects in cells and tissue from susceptible individuals.