The main objectives of this work package are to:

  • Scale up DR activities, taking into account specifics of pilots profiles and projecting pilot results to multinational and European scale; this requires evaluating the error margin introduced in the pilot programs by recruitment sampling and bias.
  • Asses the specifications of DR in blocks of buildings with respect to market requirements.
  • Develop business models for new energy services based on demand response.
  • Integrate strategies of building block DR in a future power market (e.g. national conditions, price signals).
  • Extend and/or create new market designs for optimal valorisation of the flexibility from building blocks.
  • Create market access for aggregators in different national conditions/regulations.
  • Evaluate impact on electrify grids (grid stability, capacity markets, …) and incentives for DR (dynamic remuneration).
  • Introduce project results to national, European and International Standardisation bodies.
  • Introduce blocks of buildings concept to new EU standards on zero energy buildings.

Studies and Results

Initial studies have been analysing flexible energy models for residential and tertiary sectors in Belgium, Germany, United Kingdom, Spain, Switzerland and France, to discover the best way of delivering demand response (DR) services to the market and ensuring commercial viability for suppliers. The project has also identified a number of barriers to DR in these countries.

Whilst there is the potential for DR business models to be established for most of the six countries, the Spanish government does not allow aggregators to participate and therefore demand response is almost impossible to establish.

Across all six countries, aggregator firms are needed to make DR work and Sim4Blocks has discovered that aggregator regulations across Europe is very inconstant. Look at the Sim4Blocks factsheet on, “Adding flexibility to our energy markets” for more information.

Sim4Blocks is now looking into suitable business models for flexible energy use in blocks of buildings. One potential building model would be based on the ‘time of use’ in order to create different tariffs for different times.

The project has also been working on how to make DR easier for aggregators to manage by creating a universal language that increases the ease of flexible energy use.

As buildings get smarter there is more potential for flexibility, but for aggregators to fully exploit these assets, assets need to be able to communicate and so Sim4Blocks has come up with a domain specific language to do just this. A factsheet has been produced on, “A universal language for flexible energy” with more information.

This language is now being tested at two Sim4Blocks pilot sites to see if it can be easily upscaled, and to see if it is universally easy-to-use.

Planned dissemination (in discussion):

  • Two conference papers
  • One journal paper

Work package point of contact

Enrique Kremers –

Dr. Enrique Kremers (Electrical Engineer of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, PhD in Complex Energy System Simulation of the University of the Basque Country, Spain) is researcher and coordinates the Intelligent Energy Systems Competence Cluster at the European Institute for Energy Research (EIFER), linked to its Local Multi-Energy Group.

His main field of research are distributed and decentralised bottom up simulation approaches to tackle the challenges of the energy transition. Dr. Kremers has contributed to several industrial EDF projects on Smart Girds, Smart Cities and Multi-Energy Systems. To Sim4Blocks he contributes with aggregation models for flexibility and market access studies.